# Do atoms in bound states have discrete energy levels?

## Do atoms in bound states have discrete energy levels?

In quantum physics, a bound state is a quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localized in one or more regions of space. In general, the energy spectrum of the set of bound states is discrete, unlike free particles, which have a continuous spectrum.

## What does it mean to have discrete energy levels?

Atoms and molecules have discrete energy levels, as a result of the quantum-mechanical nature of the motion of the electrons. An atom in the lower state 1 can become excited while absorbing a photon, at a rate BIn1 that is proportional to the intensity per unit frequency I (also called the spectral intensity).

What is the difference between a bound state and unbound state?

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Dynamic systems may be categorised as bound or unbound; if the sum of the kinetic and binding energies is less than zero, interacting entities are considered bound; and if greater than zero, unbound. The state of a system where the total is zero is a matter for debate.

### What is the energy of a particle when trapped in potential well?

Inside the well there is no potential energy, and the particle is trapped inside the well by “walls” of infinite potential energy. This has solutions of E=∞, which is impossible (no particle can have infinite energy) or ψ=0. Since ψ=0, the particle can never be found outside of the well.

### Why are bound states discrete?

Bound states are discrete — that is, they form an energy spectrum of discrete energy levels. The Schrödinger equation gives you those states. If a particle’s energy, E, is greater than the potential (V1 in the figure), the particle can escape from the potential well.

Why do atoms have discrete energy levels?

The discrete energy levels arise because electrons are bound to the atom, and thus have a wave function that must asymptotically go to zero at large distances from the nucleus.

## What is discrete energy and continuous energy?

In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive …

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## What is bound state and scattering states?

Physically, a particle in a bound state cannot be found at or (probability of finding the particle at is zero). In other words, the particle is “bounded” in a localized region. However, a particle in a scattering state, which are not normalizable, can be found at or or both.

What is bound motion?

A bounded motion is one where the changes in POSITION remains finite at ALL time. So for a motion where the position resembles a rectangular wave, where the velocity and acceleration is infinite within an infinitesimal short time, the motion is still bounded.

### Why the ground state energy of particle in a potential well box is not zero?

The energy of a particle is quantized and. The lowest possible energy of a particle is NOT zero. This is called the zero-point energy and means the particle can never be at rest because it always has some kinetic energy.

### How do you find the spectrum of a bound state?

In summary, if the energy is less than the potential at − ∞ and + ∞, then it is a bound state, and the spectrum will be discrete: Ψ ( x, t) = ∑ n c n Ψ n ( x, t). Ψ ( x, t) = ∫ d k c ( k) Ψ k ( x, t).

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What is the difference between bound state and bound potential?

The potential may be external or it may be the result of the presence of another particle; in the latter case, one can equivalently define a bound state as a state representing two or more particles whose interaction energy exceeds the total energy of each separate particle.

## When is the spectrum of a delta function a bound state?

If you have a copy of Griffiths, he has a nice discussion of this in the delta function potential section. In summary, if the energy is less than the potential at − ∞ and + ∞, then it is a bound state, and the spectrum will be discrete: Ψ(x, t) = ∑ n cnΨn(x, t). Otherwise (if the energy is greater than the potential at − ∞ or + ∞ ),…

## Are the energy levels of electrons discrete or continuous?

Now, using this value and substituting it in the Schrodinger equation yields us the value of the energy of the electron corresponding to the wave function ψ n ( x). Thus, we have the electron energy levels are quantized. So the energy levels are discrete, not continuous as expected from a classical point of view. .